### Primer7 生態學多變數統計軟體

For a list of changes to previous version:

- Robust, widely applicable, statistical analysis of multivariate data, e.g. species assemblages, physico-chemical variables, genetic, microbial, biomarker, diet, RS, modelling etc data.
- A ‘standard’ for marine community & biodiversity research, increasingly used in terrestrial, freshwater & palaeo studies. Also widely used commercially for assessing environmental impacts of oilfields, discharges, mining, trawling, aquaculture.
- The methods make few, if any, assumptions about the form of the data ('non-metric' ordination and permutation tests are fundamental to the approach) and concentrate on approaches that are straightforward to understand and explain.

The statistical methods underlying the software are explained in non-mathematical terms in an extensive 'methods manual', which also shows outcomes from many literature studies, e.g. of environmental effects of oil spills, drilling mud disposal, sewage pollution etc on soft-sediment benthic assemblages, disturbance or climatic effects on coral reef composition or fish communities, more fundamental biodiversity and community ecology patterns, mesocosm studies with multi-species outcomes etc. Many of these full data sets are included with the package so that the user can replicate the analyses given in the manual for himself/herself.

The full integration within a standard Windows environment allows: easy manipulation of data and results, e.g. in input/output from Excel spreadsheets or other sources; the ability to view and manipulate data and some derived files/plots on screen, in multiple windows; standard Windows printing and export to Windows .emf or .bmp files (graphics) and .rtf files (text); flexibility in specifying analyses, particularly for subsets of data and in defining group structures for tests and displays; ability to handle relatively large data sets (subject to available Windows memory and, primarily, time constraints - as with all non-parametric and permutation-based methods, computation time can b

A further unique feature of PRIMER 6 is the ability to calculate biodiversity indices based on the taxonomic distinctness or relatedness of the species making up a quantitative sample or species list, indices whose statistical properties are robust to variations in sampling effort. These routines allow formal hypothesis tests for change in biodiversity structure at a location (as measured by average and variation in taxonomic 'breadth' of the species list), from that 'expected' from a larger, regional species pool. It provides a possible way of comparing biodiversity patterns over wide space and time scales, when sampling effort is not controlled.

### CLUSTER

Hierarchical clustering into sample (or species) groups. Rotate, collapse, zoom plots, multi-page printout

### MDS & PCA

Ordination by non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal components (PCA). Overlay clusters, trajectories, bubble plots.

### ANOSIM

To summarise patterns in species composition and environmental variables; permutation-based hypothesis testing (ANOSIM), an analogue of univariate ANOVA which tests for differences between groups of (multivariate) samples from different times, locations, experimental treatments etc.

### SIMPER

Identifies the species primarily providing the discrimination between two observed sample clusters.

### BEST

The linking of multivariate biotic patterns to suites of environmental variables. Includes permutation tests.

### RELATE

Comparative (Mantel-type) tests on similarity matrices.

### TAXDTEST

Taxonomic distinctness tests.

### Other

Standard diversity indices; dominance plots; species abundance distributions; aggregation of arrays to allow data analysis at higher taxonomic levels, etc.